Steven Offenbacher, DDS, PhD, chair, department of periodontology; director, Center for Oral and Systemic Diseases, School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Mayo Clinic: “Oral health: A window to your overall health.”
American Dental Association: “Diabetes.”
Cleveland Clinic: “Oral Health Problems and Diabetes.”
American Academy of Periodontology: “Gum Disease and Diabetes.”
American Diabetes Association: “Diabetes and Oral Health Problems.”
Mayo Clinic: “Diabetes and dental care: Guide to a healthy mouth.”
Sally Cram, DDS, periodontist; spokeswoman, American Dental Association.
American Dental Association: “Oral Cancer.”
Cleveland Clinic: “Oral Cancer.”
American Cancer Society: “Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer.”
Mayo Clinic: “What is the best way to screen for oral cancer?”
Mayo Clinic: “Bruxism/teeth grinding.”
American Dental Association: “Bruxism (Teeth Grinding).”
American Academy of Periodontology: “Gum Disease and Pregnancy Problems.”
CDC: “Public Health Implications of Chronic Periodontal Infection in Adults.”
Vergnes, J. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, February 2007.